Measures in AePPL

AePPL needs the notion of measure to be able to perform operations such as truncate, or for more exotic use cases such as distributions defined on a non-trivial manifold. We will note \(\mathbb{M} \mathcal{M}\) the measure defined on the manifold \(\mathcal{M}\) (often \(\mathbb{R}\), but not necessarily). For instance the parametrized \(\operatorname{normal}\) measure (distribution) is defined as:

\[ \frac{\mu : \mathbb{R}, \sigma : \mathbb{R}^+}{\operatorname{normal}(\mu, \sigma) \in \mathbb{M}\mathbb{R}} \]

And the \(\operatorname{dirichlet}\) measure as:

\[ \frac{\boldsymbol{\alpha} : \mathbb{R}^n}{\operatorname{dirichlet}(\boldsymbol{\alpha}) \in \mathbb{M}\Delta_n} \]

We note \(\mathbb{T}A\) a tensor that contains elements of type \(A\). Broadcasting rules apply when parameters of different dimensionalities apply, and the result is a tensor of measures of type \(\mathbb{T}(\mathbb{M}E)\) where \(E\) is the event space's type.

To make the junction with Aesara's RandomVariable\s we define the sample operator. \(\operatorname{sample}(k, m)\) is a function that takes a PRNG key \(k \in \Omega\) , a measure \(m : \mathbb{M}E\) and returns an element \(e \in E\). Under the hood, sample finds the RandomVariable that corresponds to a given measure and creates a new apply node by calling the Op.

sample :: PRNGKey -> Measure -> TensorVariable

Base types

We must first define the types \(E\) that the event space can take. Our goal is to get a minimum viable example for the normal distributions so will limit ourselves to \(\mathbb{R}\) and \(\mathbb{R}^+\).

from aesara.raise_op import CheckAndRaise
import aesara.tensor as at
import abc

class CheckParameterValue(CheckAndRaise):
    """Implements a parameter value check in a graph."""

    def __init__(self, msg=""):
        super().__init__(TypeError, msg)

    def __str__(self):
        return f"Check{{{self.msg}}}"

class Domain(abc.ABC)
    def __call__(self, x):

class Real(Domain):
    def __call__(self, x):
        return CheckParameterValue("real")(x, at.isfinite(x))

class Positive(Domain):
    def __call__(self, x):
        return CheckParameterValue("x >= 0")(x, at.geq(x, 0), at.isfinite(x))

reals = Real()
positive = Positive()

The constraints that characterize the types are represented in the Aesara graph with a CheckParameterValue assertion.


We now define the type for the measure \(\mathbb{M}E\). We include information about the base measure, noting \(\mathbb{L}\) and \(\mathbb{C}\) for the Lebesgue and counting measures respectively.

import aesara.tensor as at
import abc

class Measure(abc.ABC):
    """A variable that represents a probability measure."""
    base_measure: Measure

class PrimitiveMeasure(abs.ABC):
    """A primitive measure"""
    domain: Domain

class Lebesgue(PrimitiveMeasure):
    def __init__(self, domain: Domain):
        self.domain = domain

class NormalMeasure(Measure):
    def __init__(self, loc, scale):
        self.parameters = {
            "loc": reals(loc),
            "scale": positive(scale)
        self.base_measure = Lebesgue(reals)
        self.rv = at.random.normal


import aesara.random as ar
from multipledispatch import dispatch

def sample(rng, measure: Measure):
    return measure.rv(rng=rng, **parameters)


import singledispatch

def logdensity(m: measure):
    raise NotImplementedError(f"No density associated with the provided {measure}")

def normal_logdensity(m: Measure, values):
    (value,) = values
    mu, sigma = m.parameters["loc"], m.parameters["scale"]
    res = (
        -0.5 * at.pow((value - mu) / sigma, 2)
        - at.log(at.sqrt(2.0 * np.pi))
        - at.log(sigma)
    return res


def logdensity(measure, x):
    return _logdensity(measure, measure.base_measure, x)

def sample(rng_key, measure):

import singledispatch

class Measure(abc.ABC):
    """A variable that represents a probability measure."""

class Lebesgue(PrimitiveMeasure):

    def __init__(self, domain):
        self.domain = domain

class NormalMeasure(Measure):

    def __init__(self, mu, sigma): = reals(mu)
        self.sigma = positive(sigma)
        self.base_measure = Lebesgue(reals)

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